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BREAST COMPOSITION

Breast consists of  

  • Cooper's Ligament: a strong ligamentous band extending upward and backward from the base of Gimbernat's ligament along the iliopectineal line to which it is attached -- called also ligament of Cooper.

  • Pectoralis major: a larger chest muscle that arises from the clavicle, the sternum, the cartilages of most or all of the ribs, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle and is inserted by a strong flat tendon into the posterior bicipital ridge of the humerus.

  • Pectoralis minor: a smaller chest muscle that lies beneath the larger, arises from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, and is inserted by a flat tendon into the coracoid process of the scapula.

  • Connective tissue: a tissue of mesodermal origin rich in intercellular substance or interlacing processes with little tendency for the cells to come together in sheets or masses;

  • Specifically : connective tissue of stellate or spindle-shaped cells with interlacing processes that pervades, supports, and binds together other tissues and forms ligaments and tendons.

  • Blood vessels: any of the vessels through which blood circulates in the body.

  • Ribs: any of the paired curved bony or partly cartilaginous rods that stiffen the lateral walls of the body of most vertebrates and protect the viscera, that occur in mammals exclusively or almost exclusively in the thoracic region, and that in humans normally include 12 pairs of which all are articulated with the spinal column at the dorsal end and the first 10 are connected also at the ventral end with the sternum by costal cartilages.

  • Subcutaneous fat: fat cells being, living, used, or made under the skin.

  • Infra-mammary crease: infra- meaning below, mammary meaning breast. The fold or crease under the breast where the breast lobe meets the torso.

  • Breast fat: fatty tissue found above the glandular tissue of the breast. The breast is mostly made up of lobules, milk ducts, fat, and glandular tissue.

  • Ducts: a bodily tube or vessel especially when carrying the secretion of a gland, specifically breast milk. esp. lactiferous ducts, milk ducts.

  • Glandular tissue: of, relating to, or involving glands, gland cells, or their products; specifically breast milk production. esp. lobules.

  • Nipple: the protuberance of a mammary gland upon which in the female the lactiferous ducts open and from which milk is drawn.

  • Lobules: The glandular part of the breast where milk is produced.

Breast Envelope: the skin which surrounds the structure of the breast.

Breast Composition

The breast is a mass of glandular, fatty, and fibrous tissues positioned over the pectoral muscles of the chest wall and attached to the chest wall by fibrous strands called Cooper’s ligaments. A layer of fatty tissue surrounds the breast glands and extends throughout the breast. The fatty tissue gives the breast a soft consistency.

The glandular tissues of the breast house the lobules (milk producing glands at the ends of the lobes) and the ducts (milk passages). Toward the nipple, each duct widens to form a sac (ampulla). During lactation, the bulbs on the ends of the lobules produce milk. Once milk is produced, it is transferred through the ducts to the nipple. 

  • The breast is composed of:

  • Milk glands (lobules) that produce milk

  • Ducts that transport milk from the milk glands (lobules) to the nipple

  • Nipple

  • Areola (pink or brown pigmented region surrounding the nipple)

  • Connective (fibrous) tissue that surrounds the lobules and ducts

  • Fat

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The breasts are not a part of the woman's genitals. They develop as a result of the action of the sexual hormones that manifest in puberty.

However, this does not mean that they do not take part in the erotic life of the woman, through their important psychological role.

The breasts are first of all important for breast-feeding the baby, apart from the usual erotic pleasure.

The Constitution of the Breasts

The mammal gland is usually "in pause", except for the interval of pregnancy and breast-feeding. The main constituents of the breast are the conjunctive tissue, rich in elastic fibers and the adipose tissue, rich in fat.

Each breast has 15 to 20 sections, called lobes that are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.

 

The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are all linked by thin tubes called ducts. These ducts lead to the nipple in the center of a dark area of skin called the areola. Fat fills the spaces between lobules and ducts.

There are no muscles in the breast, but muscles lie under each breast and cover the ribs.

Each breast also contains blood vessels and vessels that carry lymph. The lymph vessels lead to small bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes, clusters of which are found under the arm, above the collarbone, and in the chest, as well as in many other parts of the body.

Anatomy And Physiology

Each of these accessory reproductive glands lies on the superior surface of the chest wall lying mostly on top of the pectoral's muscle.

During pregnancy the alveoli enlarge and during lactation the cells secrete milk substances, i.e. proteins and lipids. The cells surrounding the alveoli contract to express the milk during lactation.

Breast tissue is supported by ligaments called Coopers ligaments that keep the breasts in their characteristic shape and position. In the case of older women or in pregnancy these ligaments become loose or stretched, respectively, and the breasts sag.

Reproductive hormones are important in the development of the breast in puberty and in lactation. Estrogen promotes the growth of the gland and ducts while progesterone stimulates the development of milk producing cells.

Prolactin, released from the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates milk production. Oxytocin, released from the posterior pituitary in response to suckling, causes milk ejection from the lactating breast.

In response to hormone stimulation, the breasts enlarge due to the growth of ductal and alveolar tissues and an increase in fat deposits. The nipple and areola also enlarge and become more sensitive to touch.

When the woman begins to menstruate, the breasts undergo a periodic premenstrual phase that varies with the individual but can include an increase in size, swelling and tenderness.

The symptoms subside within a few days of the onset of bleeding. During pregnancy, the breasts increase in size dramatically due to the influence of progesterone.

The nipple and areola become deeply pigmented and increase in size. The necessary machinery to produce milk by late pregnancy replaces most of the fat. After delivery the breasts begin to secrete milk.

The gland rapidly returns to the pre-pregnant state when nursing ceases. The postmenopausal breast may retain its shape but the milk producing machinery is mostly replaced by fat.

Nonetheless, the mammal gland gets its definitive structure only during pregnancy.