Breast consists of
Cooper's Ligament: a strong ligamentous band extending
upward and backward from the base of Gimbernat's
ligament along the iliopectineal line to which it is
attached -- called also ligament of Cooper.
Pectoralis major: a larger chest muscle that arises from
the clavicle, the sternum, the cartilages of most or all
of the ribs, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique
muscle and is inserted by a strong flat tendon into the
posterior bicipital ridge of the humerus.
Pectoralis minor: a smaller chest muscle that lies
beneath the larger, arises from the third, fourth, and
fifth ribs, and is inserted by a flat tendon into the
coracoid process of the scapula.
Connective tissue: a tissue of mesodermal origin rich in
intercellular substance or interlacing processes with
little tendency for the cells to come together in sheets
Specifically : connective tissue of stellate or
spindle-shaped cells with interlacing processes that
pervades, supports, and binds together other tissues and
forms ligaments and tendons.
vessels: any of the vessels through which blood
circulates in the body.
any of the paired curved bony or partly cartilaginous
rods that stiffen the lateral walls of the body of most
vertebrates and protect the viscera, that occur in
mammals exclusively or almost exclusively in the
thoracic region, and that in humans normally include 12
pairs of which all are articulated with the spinal
column at the dorsal end and the first 10 are connected
also at the ventral end with the sternum by costal
Subcutaneous fat: fat cells being, living, used, or made
under the skin.
Infra-mammary crease: infra- meaning below, mammary
meaning breast. The fold or crease under the breast
where the breast lobe meets the torso.
fat: fatty tissue found above the glandular tissue of
the breast. The breast is mostly made up of lobules,
milk ducts, fat, and glandular tissue.
a bodily tube or vessel especially when carrying the
secretion of a gland, specifically breast milk. esp.
lactiferous ducts, milk ducts.
Glandular tissue: of, relating to, or involving glands,
gland cells, or their products; specifically breast milk
production. esp. lobules.
the protuberance of a mammary gland upon which in the
female the lactiferous ducts open and from which milk is
Lobules: The glandular part of the breast where milk is
Envelope: the skin which surrounds the structure of the
is a mass of glandular, fatty, and fibrous tissues
positioned over the pectoral muscles of the chest wall and
attached to the chest wall by fibrous strands called
Cooper’s ligaments. A layer of fatty tissue surrounds the
breast glands and extends throughout the breast. The fatty
tissue gives the breast a soft consistency.
glandular tissues of the breast house the lobules (milk
producing glands at the ends of the lobes) and the ducts
(milk passages). Toward the nipple, each duct widens to form
a sac (ampulla). During lactation, the bulbs on the ends of
the lobules produce milk. Once milk is produced, it is
transferred through the ducts to the nipple.
breast is composed of:
glands (lobules) that produce milk
that transport milk from the milk glands (lobules) to
(pink or brown pigmented region surrounding the nipple)
Connective (fibrous) tissue that surrounds the lobules
are not a part of the woman's genitals. They develop as a
result of the action of the sexual hormones that manifest in
this does not mean that they do not take part in the erotic
life of the woman, through their important psychological
The breasts are first of all
important for breast-feeding the baby, apart from the usual
Constitution of the
gland is usually "in pause", except for the interval of
pregnancy and breast-feeding. The main constituents of the
breast are the conjunctive tissue, rich in elastic fibers
and the adipose tissue, rich in fat.
has 15 to 20 sections, called lobes that are arranged like
the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules,
which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
lobules, and bulbs are all linked by thin tubes called
ducts. These ducts lead to the nipple in the center of a
dark area of skin called the areola. Fat fills the spaces
between lobules and ducts.
no muscles in the breast, but muscles lie under each breast
and cover the ribs.
Each breast also contains
blood vessels and vessels that carry lymph. The lymph
vessels lead to small bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes,
clusters of which are found under the arm, above the
collarbone, and in the chest, as well as in many other parts
of the body.
Anatomy And Physiology
Each of these accessory
reproductive glands lies on the superior surface of the
chest wall lying mostly on top of the pectoral's muscle.
During pregnancy the alveoli
enlarge and during lactation the cells secrete milk
substances, i.e. proteins and lipids. The cells surrounding
the alveoli contract to express the milk during lactation.
Breast tissue is supported by
ligaments called Coopers ligaments that keep the breasts in
their characteristic shape and position. In the case of
older women or in pregnancy these ligaments become loose or
stretched, respectively, and the breasts sag.
Reproductive hormones are important in the development of
the breast in puberty and in lactation. Estrogen promotes
the growth of the gland and ducts while progesterone
stimulates the development of milk producing cells.
released from the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates milk
production. Oxytocin, released from the posterior pituitary
in response to suckling, causes milk ejection from the
to hormone stimulation, the breasts enlarge due to the
growth of ductal and alveolar tissues and an increase in fat
deposits. The nipple and areola also enlarge and become more
sensitive to touch.
woman begins to menstruate, the breasts undergo a periodic
premenstrual phase that varies with the individual but can
include an increase in size, swelling and tenderness.
symptoms subside within a few days of the onset of bleeding.
During pregnancy, the breasts increase in size dramatically
due to the influence of progesterone.
and areola become deeply pigmented and increase in size. The
necessary machinery to produce milk by late pregnancy
replaces most of the fat. After delivery the breasts begin
to secrete milk.
rapidly returns to the pre-pregnant state when nursing
ceases. The postmenopausal breast may retain its shape but
the milk producing machinery is mostly replaced by fat.
Nonetheless, the mammal gland gets its definitive structure
only during pregnancy.