Infertility is defined as a couple's inability to become
pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected sex.
Male infertility means the male is unable to impregnate the
female because of male factors.
Approximately 15% of couples attempting their first
pregnancy meet with failure. Most authorities define these
patients as primarily infertile if they have been unable to
achieve a pregnancy after one year of unprotected
Conception normally is achieved within twelve months in
80-85% of couples who use no contraceptive measures, and
persons presenting after this time should therefore be
regarded as possibly infertile and should be evaluated. Data
available over the past twenty years reveal that in
approximately 30% of cases pathology is found in the man
alone, and in another 20% both the man and woman are
abnormal. Therefore, the male factor is at least partly
responsible in about 50% of infertile couples.
The most common causes of male infertility include
Varicocele is a dilation (enlargement) of the veins along
the spermatic cord (vas deferens) in the scrotum. It is
caused by incompetent or inadequate valves within the veins
along the spermatic cord. The abnormal valves obstruct
normal blood flow causing a backup of blood, resulting in
dilation of the veins. This condition is the most common
reversible cause of male factor infertility.
Abnormalities in the seminal fluid
If the seminal fluid is very thick it may be difficult for
the sperm to move through it and into the woman's
Often the semen can be processed to separate the moving
sperm from the surrounding debris, dead sperm and seminal
fluid. The processed sperm is usually placed directly inside
the uterus with a small tube (catheter). This is called
intrauterine insemination (IUI).
Oligospermia (Low sperm count) Most cases of male infertility are due to low sperm count.
The normal range of sperm count is between 20 million/ml
and 200 million/ml. That sperm count is below 20
million/ml indicates oligospermia. There are many biologic
and environmental factors that can lead to low sperm
count. For instance, abnormalities in production or
obstruction of the tubes that carry sperm can reduce sperm
Necrospermia (Dead sperm) Necrospermia
is a condition in which sperm are produced and found in
the semen but are not alive and are unable to fertilize
eggs. That over 40% sperms are dead in the semen analysis
(Lack of sperm)
Azoospermia is the complete absence of sperm in the semen.
The diagnosis of azoospermia is sometimes still made even
though as many as 500,000 sperm per ml of semen may have
been seen because it is extremely unlikely that the man
will be able to father a child
Positive anti-sperm antibody
There is much scientific evidence that sperm antibodies in
males and females cause infertility. Sperm antibodies are
chemical substances in the semen, cervical mucus, blood
and other body fluids that neutralize the purpose of
sperm, which is to fertilize an egg.
of Male infertility
infertility occurs when the man's partner does not conceive
after one year of attempting to become pregnant. Other signs
and symptoms depend on the underlying cause of the man's
Patient may also feel drowsiness. A rapid, deep breathing,
known as “kussmaul breathing” may also be noted. There may be
smell of acetone in the patient’s breath (a sign of
ketoacidosis), a severely dangerous condition.
Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to altered
vision. In them prolonged high blood glucose causes changes
in the shape of the lens in the eye, leading to blurred
vision. So, regular visit to ophalmologist is necessary. All
unexplained quick changes in eyesight should force as
fasting blood glucose test. There are nowadays quick
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